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Science for a Complex World
  1. 15 Extraordinary Medieval Cities Around the World
  2. Populations of a Medieval City
  3. Medieval Cities
  4. Medieval commune - Wikipedia

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It is home to just 44 residents, including monks and nuns who reside in a Gothic-styled abbey, built over a period of 1, years and completed in The medieval town of Mystras has been largely abandoned since , when King Otto founded the new city of Sparta nearby. Fortunately, its fascinating ruins have been carefully preserved for historical and tourism purposes.

Head to the amphitheater, which was built around the fortress in by the prince of Achaia, William of Villehardouin. Then visit the various ruins of palaces, monasteries and churches spread out over this fortified mountainside city, including the fresco-filled Pantanassa Monastery. While you can certainly head to Mystras on your own, day trips from Athens are popular among visitors and worth the extra effort. Come to learn the story of a once-great metropolis that, in the last decades of the Byzantine period, was considered second only to Constantinople in its influence and power.

These days, their main purpose is to provide romantic rides for tourists, but their earliest recorded use dates back to Gondolas would go on to become a primary mode of transportation, with some 8, to 10, of them used during the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, there are about On your medieval tour, also check out St.

And make time to see the Ca' d'Oro or Palazzo palace, a treasure from the later Middle Ages that opened in In Manarola, you can check out the remains of a castle from the 13th century. And in Riomaggiore, a hillside castle built for defense purposes traces back to the 13th century. All the villages also include colorful homes and waterfront cafes serving fresh seafood and fine wine.

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Another fortified city, York is one of the only cities where you can actually walk on top of the original medieval walls, which stretch for over 2 miles and take about 2 hours to stroll in full. The formidable walls weigh about , metric tonnes. Make sure to pop into the Jorvik History Centre as well, which is home to many ancient Viking artifacts from when the city was largely controlled by the infamous historic seafarers. Head to Piazza del Campo, which has been lovingly preserved since the s and is one of the grandest medieval squares in Western Europe, home to centuries-old mansions that still stand proud today.

Finish out your historic immersion by paying a visit to the circath-century Torre del Mangia, a tower that offers magnificent views of the city. But its history stretches back much farther than that, promising enough historic sights to easily fill an itinerary. Another must-visit sight is the aptly named Ancient Government Office, which opened in and served through both the Ming and Qing dynasties. Although London is widely regarded as one of the most modern cities in Europe, it would be a disservice to ignore its medieval history, which is still very much evident today.

And as has been mentioned in comments: Farmers live on farms, not in cities. They only go there to sell their produce on the market and buy necesary commodities. The rest of the time they tend to their farms, from sunrise to sunset. As to these types of schools, they tended to be established from about , with the most growth in the s. If you lean towards the late s, your school might have been around for a hundred years or more in one form or another.

15 Extraordinary Medieval Cities Around the World

Although monasteries, for a long time, were the bastion of education for many communities-- in Medieval times most monasteries were not converted into honest-to-goodness universities. This did happen, in England, oh, round about the s , which is Renaissance territory. Other conversions in other places happened much later, but the conversion wasn't a Medieval thing. Many universities actually developed on their own, fiercely independent of the church, mainly because they thought credentials in academia were more important than church credentials. That's not to say that monasteries didn't have an influence, and it isn't to say that the church wasn't influenced by the creation of these institutions.

You can start with the wikipedia entry and look at the Establishment section.

Populations of a Medieval City

Who paid for the uni, varied from community to community. And yes, who paid for it was, indeed, often the church. But for neigh-sayers that speak as though there were NO connection between the church and universities, that doesn't add up, as students and teachers often had the same sort of privileges extended to them as clergy like not being tried in regular court but Ecclesiastical. For town sizes and distance from each other, see my answer here , where I list city sizes about London, which was one of Medieval times "mega cities" at least in England, anyway, had about 20, people there in This answer also kind of covers the co-dependence nearby settlements and towns could have on each other.

Now, that's just England. Paris, which founded its Uni round ish, had an estimated population about , by and double that at least by Cailloumax's answer includes some lovely maps, so I'll leave the specific street layout alone, except in general terms. City streets varied from community to community, but tended to be crooked affairs for the most part, with a few main straightaways.

As to farms in the city, well, if your population is high, they won't be enough to feed your city. Most of the farming is going to be beyond the walls. That isn't to say that there might not be orchards and gardens on the grounds of the monastery, your school, or the castle. They were where people went when they were attacked. When a city became important, they might wall more of it, beyond the grounds, but building a wall is expensive, so many times it still didn't encompass the WHOLE of the city. That doesn't mean that there aren't small walled Medieval cities, which encompassed the whole of the city, it just means that it's unlikely that there aren't suburbs spilling out of it.

Bits of old walls before the city expands will often still be standing WITHIN the city, with an outer wall to protect from attack. London outgrew its walls , and by , the walls just separated the city center from the rest of it. If you're looking to make a really large city, the walls might be there, but they are mainly neighborhood barriers.

So you may have slang as to that. Before a Uni is physically built, understand that the community of scholars will already exist, and classes are held where ever there is room. Sometimes that will be at the local monastery, or castle grounds, or people's homes--for years. Then, they gain patronage, often from a person taught by the University's scholars which, while it might not have a physical location, is recognized, sometimes by the local lord, sometimes by the church, or both. Lords like it because they might be scholars themselves, and because drawing students to a city can increase commerce.

That's not to say the locals will like the change. University students were a tad.. This link is great one that outlines the relationship between cities and universities, and the monastic communities that served at proto-universities in the city of Paris. It also talks about hall rental within a particular district, which then became the University of Paris.

Seriously, check out the link, because basically--the University of Paris was founded because of a bar brawl, which escalated into assault, theft, and what amounted to state-sanctioned murder. You might notice on the map that the uni district is separated by the river, with its own bridge over, somewhat isolating it, though it is technically within the city walls. That's why it was easy to barricade when the local authorities started trying to kill them--there just weren't that many ways in and out of the district.

Medieval Cities

This point of design may be something you want to look at. A private institution of learning might want room to build, and it might not have been built inside the city proper--it can feature its own walls and gates, of course, and then around that stuff and people will naturally be set to cater to the students. Indeed, even when located within a city, building walls around Universities happened pretty frequently often because the city might impose a curfew on the students, who had to be within their "quarter" of the city after a certain time--this varied from place to place and time to time.

Only ONE of the abbeys was located within the city walls, and that one wasn't always within the bounds of the city. See this wiki link on all the walls built as the city expanded. While the Abbey of St Genevieve was founded in the s, it wasn't inside the city walls until 5 or years later.

Your Answer

Most Abbeys weren't inside a city to start with, particularly if they relied on their own agriculture to keep the monks and clergy fed. They can still have a farm once incorporated inside a city, but they could also sell or donate the land to city interests for the building of roads, infrastructure and other things.

But often they kept some land for that purpose, sometimes for more decorative contemplative purposes, but often for a more practical purpose, such as making a product to sell to the public preserves, beer, wine, that kind of thing. Cambridge or Oxford might be a better model if you're looking to go smaller--their population was about 2, each. Cambridge University is interesting because it was founded by Oxford scholars who didn't like the way students and teachers were treated--so they moved to a community where they could set themselves better terms.

Look at London or Paris around the 12th century. You are probably looking at around - thousand people at the most. I don't think there would be any discernible layout, ancient and medieval cities mostly grew organically.

Medieval commune - Wikipedia

Some Roman cities were built on a grid but those were planned cities, not existing settlements. Since the early middle ages were very chaotic most settlements just not planned. From the Wikipedia article on London:. Medieval London was made up of narrow and twisting streets, and most of the buildings were made from combustible materials such as wood and straw, which made fire a constant threat.

Sanitation in London was poor.