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Sapota fruit is highly perishable and is also sensitive to cold storage. Therefore, bulk of the produce is used for table purpose and is handled at ambient climatic conditions causing considerable post harvest losses.

Nowadays dry segments and flakes of the fruit are being processed but to a limited extent. Processed food items viz. It is essential to produce value added products based on sapota, so that farmers get an assured price for their produce all the time. Creation of essential infra-structure for preservation, cold storage, refrigerated transportation, rapid transit, grading, processing, packaging and quality control are important aspects which need attention to give a fillip to high quality commercial production.

Sapota, being a tropical crop can be grown from sea level upto m. Coastal climate is best suited for its cultivation. Alluvial, sandy loam, red laterite and medium black soils with good drainage are ideal for cultivation of sapota. At higher elevations in places like Punjab and Haryana, it gives only one crop from summer flowering in April and May. The state-wise growing belts are mentioned below :. Growing belts. Valsad, Navsari, Surat, Junagadh, Bhavnagar. Kolar, Bangalore, Chikkamagalu, Belagaum, Raichur. Varieties grown. Kalipatti, Dhola Diwani, Cricket ball, Murabba. Cricket ball, Kalipatti.

Uttar Pradesh.

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The land is ploughed two to three times and then leveled. Undulating land is divided into terraces and leveling is done. Tall and thick growing trees viz.

The plants for windbreak may be planted at a distance of 1. Sapota is commercially propagated by vegetative methods such as air layering or gootee layering, grafting and budding. Planting can be done in any season provided irrigation facilities are available. Grafts are usually planted in the beginning of the rainy season. In areas which experience heavy rainfall the crop can be planted as late as September.

On an average, plants are planted at a spacing of 8. High density planting with a spacing of 5x5 m.

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In light soils, pits of 60x60x60 cm. The pits are later on filled with well-rotten compost or farmyard manure, 3 kg.

Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking, Second Edition

The pits are then left to monsoon rains for settling and planting is done at appropriate time. Grafts, budded plants or layers are planted one in each pit and care is taken so that the bud joint or graft is at least 15 cm. After planting, stakes are provided to avoid wind damage. Young plants are protected from the sun by making dry grass thatch on top and three sides excepting the south-east for sunlight. Square system of planting is recommended. Contour planting is recommended in case of sloping land.

Handbook Of Pulp Two Volume Set! Magnet link

No definite training system has been developed for the plant. Plants raised through inarching require training for appropriate shape and framework development. Most of the trees are trained in central leader system. Under rainfed conditions, fertilizers are applied before the onset of monsoon. Under irrigated conditions, it should be applied in two splits, one half at the beginning of monsoon and the remaining half in the post-monsoon period September-October.

Irrigation is provided at an interval of 30 days in winter and 15 days in summer. This system is laid out with 2 drippers spaced 50 cm. The problem of weeds is common in young orchards. Application of 2 kg.

Food production theory book pdf

Inter-cropping with banana, papaya, pineapple and cocoa; french bean, peas, tomato, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, cucurbits is recommended depending upon the climate and irrigation facilities available. The main diseases reported are leaf spot Phleopheospora indica , base rot Ceratocystis paradoxa , heart rot Phytophthora parasitica and anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

Application of Dithane M, copper oxychloride 3 g. Sapota starts bearing from third year of planting but economic yields can be obtained from 5 th year onwards. The two main seasons of flowering are October- November and February-March and the two corresponding harvesting seasons are January-Februrary and May-June.

Sapota takes four months from flowering to maturity of fruits. The fruits are hand picked or harvested with special harvester which has a round ring with a net bag fixed onto a long bamboo. The crop bearing commences from fifth year. As such inter cropping like vegetables may be taken up in the first four years of the project make it viable. In high density plantation, the production increases from 4. Thereafter, the yield stabilizes at 8.

Grading is mainly based on size and shape of the fruits. The fruits are graded into three categories depending on their size viz. The fruits are highly perishable and can be stored under ordinary condition for a period of days after harvesting. Fourth edition features include: All chapters have been updated, including significant modifications in: Wood and Chip Handling, Mechanical Pulping, Recycled Fiber, Non-Fibrous Additives, and Surface Treatments Approximately 90 new illustrations Discusses latest technology This renowned book has been updated to reflect the latest technology and the current state of the North American industry.

Modern Tribology Handbook, Two Volume Set

Hundreds of illustrations, charts and tables help the reader grasp the concepts being presented. Author: Smook, Gary A.

Quantity: Quantity is required. Quantity must be a positive whole number. Nanocellulose End Users Guide and Perspectives Set Together, the two books form a complete set, and provide an in-depth study of the market for cellulose nanomaterials with critical insights for producers, processors, and end users. Check our newest additions. See More.